The dynosora mouth opened &closed Automatically…itโ€s like Galaxy.๐ŸŽ†๐ŸŒŒ๐ŸŒŸโญ๏ธ๐Ÿ’ซ

Beautiful peacock ๐Ÿคฉ๐Ÿ˜


The spekboom / Portulacaria Afra plant (otherwise know as โ€˜elephant foodโ€™) from Kirstenbosch Botanical gardens in Cape Town, South Africa. If you have not been to Kirstenbosch โ€“ put it on your to do list, it is beautiful. The spekboom is a succulent plant with amazing properties, I will write you a quick summary on the plant. I can tell you it is probably the best plant used as a carbon trap for carbon storage against global warming. Before you think this sounds boring, it really is an amazing plant. I wish everyone could have their little โ€˜greenโ€™ green plant. If you translated it directly from Afrikaans to English it would be named Bacon tree/bush.

Firstly you would ask, what is carbon storage again? Carbon capturing and storage is where carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are captured and the carbon dioxide is prevented from entering the atmosphere โ€“ in other words less pollution. Pretty awesome. The Spekboom is one of the best plants to do this. There are big plans and projects already in progress to use these plants as carbon traps.

Where does the Spekboom grow naturally? Apparently it might have been found in Mexico and Spain as well, but has been wiped out mostly. It is mainly found in the Eastern cape of South Africa where it has become known as โ€œElephant food.โ€ The Eastern Cape is well known for its elephants and they love to eat the Spekboom. The Addo Elephant Park is filled with Spekboom. There is a big movement to restore the natural habitat of the plant in especially the Eastern Cape.

What is significant (or rather extremely special) about this plant?

1. Firstly it grows in incredible circumstances. It grows well in dry barren ground, but also grows just as well in flower beds that get watered regularly. Back in the day livestock farmers used it as fences, it was easy to plant, the livestock could eat the leaves from the inside of the fence, while on the outside it could grow thick and strong. You can plant a few sticks apart, sticking it in the ground and water regularly โ€“ it will soon shoot roots and start to grow. You can also leave the tip of a branch in water until it shoots roots and then plant the cutting. As mentioned the plant grows well in dry and wet conditions, it has the ability to switch its photosynthetic mechanism. Meaning it can be like a rain forest plant in wet conditions or a desert cactus in dry conditions.

2. It is edible. As mentioned the plant is known as โ€œElephant food.โ€ Animals in the wild eat the plant, it is wonderful food as it is an evergreen and provides food during the cold winter months when food is scarce. Humans can also consume the leaves of the Spekboom. Apparently (I have not tried it yet) the leaves taste a bit sour, a lemon-tipe taste, perfect to use in salads they say.

3. It also stimulates the production of milk. This has been confirmed by Xhosa tradition where the grandmother would eat the plant leaves in order to be able to provide milk for her newborn grandchild when the young mother had to help gather wood and provide for the home. Dairy farmers have also confirmed that the milk production of their milk cowsโ€™ has sky rocketed when grazing in spekboom fields.

4. The plant contains a good amount manganese, cobalt and magnesium. It contains iodine and selenium in large quantities as well.

5. Finally, but mostly, carbon storage. The plant absorb carbon dioxide, but does not release it into the air again. (I will post my references at the bottom of the page if you would like to read up more on the science part). The carbon dioxide and plant matter end up in the ground, the plant is not flammable and cannot burn. As we all know there is a massive threat of global warming, the reason for that is CO2 gasses building up. The spekboom is one of the very few natural plants identified to be used as a carbon trap to help relieve this problem in the future. They are planting fields and fields as carbon trap projects.

The growth of the plant:

it is an evergreen succulent. It can reach 2.5m โ€“ 4.5m in height (most resources seems to say 2.5m high). The plant can live up to 200 years. It flowers in spring or early summer after good rains โ€“ I have not seen the flower myself before, hoping our plant will flower as it currently is more of a house plant, will definitely be posting a photo should it decide to flower. They say the flowers give delicious honey as well.

Having read that the carbon dioxide gets stored in the soil by the plant made me wonder about the soil quality. I found a resource stating that the Spekboom actually improves soil quality. That it stimulates the return of biodiversity in the area. The reason for this is the soil-binding and shading nature of the plant. It also reduces erosion.

Imagine this plant growing next to all high ways and in parks (or in pots if it must) in industrial areas where pollution is a massive problem. The best solution for clean air, completely natural, why not!? Still NO reason to pollute!

Gardening is a treat, growing plants with meaning and amazing functions is extremely rewarding.๐Ÿคฉ๐Ÿคฉโœ๏ธ

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Beautiful Banana and coconut trees๐ŸŒด๐ŸŒด

Desserts of India ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ Yummy ๐Ÿ˜‹๐Ÿ˜‹

Pleasant nature ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜

Happy Sunday and Sri Rama Navami ๐Ÿ™

Blood sugar Awareness ๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ‘

Blood Sugar/Blood Glucose = Same/Same

You might see some charts or read some articles that say โ€˜blood sugar chartโ€™ and others that say โ€˜blood glucose levels chart.โ€™

Just in case you are confused these both mean the same thing. The words โ€˜sugarโ€™ and โ€˜glucoseโ€™ are often used interchangeably.

Letโ€™s Crunch Some Numbers

Iโ€™ll give these numbers to you in a written, chart, and visual format because it will make sense to you depending how you read it.

Depending where you live in the world, numbers can vary slightly. And your numbers will either be mg/dl or mmol/l. Youโ€™ll find the numbers for both of these readings below.

Normal Blood Sugar Levels

Fasting glucose โ€“ 70-99 mg/dl or 4-6 mmol/l (Note: there is some debate about the normal range in mmol/l, ranging from 5.5 to 6 mmol/l)

2 hours post meal glucose โ€“ Less than 140 mg/dl or less than 7.8 mmol/l

Pre-diabetes diagnostic ranges โ€“ also called impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance

Fasting glucose โ€“ 100-125 mg/dl or 6.1-6.9 mmol/l

2 hours post meal glucose level โ€“ 140-199 mg/ dl or 7.8-11 mmol/l

Type 2 Diabetes diagnostic ranges

Fasting glucose โ€“ More than 126 mg/dl or more than 7.0 mmol/l

2 hours glucose level โ€“ More than 200 mg/dl or more than 11.1 mmol/l

Blood Sugar Levels Chart

The above chart and the one below are exactly the same, in different formats.CategoryFasting valuePost prandial / aka post mealMinimumMaximum2 hours after mealNormal70 mg/dl99 mg/dlLess than 140 mg/dl 4 mmol/l6 mmol/lLess than 7.8 mmol/lPre-diabetes100 mg/dl125 mg/dl140-199 mg/dl 6.1 mmol/l6.9 mmol/l7.8-11 mmol/lDiabetesMore than 126 mg/dl More than 200 More than 7 mmol/l More than 11.1 mmol/l

These are the diagnostic ranges. As you can see, the โ€œnormalโ€ range for fasting glucose is under 100 mg/dl or 6 mmol/l. Though just to note, there is some debate about the normal range in mmol/l, ranging from 5.5 to 6 mmol/l. So depending what chart you look at, you may see either of those numbers.

After a meal, the maximum reading you ideally want to see is 140 or 7.8.

If youโ€™re getting readings above this, you would be diagnosed with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, as shown in the charts above.

Diabetes Blood Sugar Level Goals

Upon waking before breakfast (Fasting)

  • 70-130 (Ideal under 110) mg/dl
  • 4-7.2 (Ideal under under 6.1) mmol/l

Two hours after meals

  • Under 180 (Ideal is under 140) mg/dl
  • Under 10 (Ideal is under 7.8) mmol/l


  • 90-150 mg/dl
  • 5-8.3 mmol/l

As suggested earlier, there is some variation in the blood sugar levels goals set by different organizations. And additionally, your physician or healthcare team may set your goals at a more stringent level.

For instance, fasting levels:

  • Between 70-100 mg/dL or 4-5.6 mmol/l (optimal)
  • 70-110 mg/dL or 4-6 mmol/l (still good control)
  • 70-130 mg/dL or 4-7.2 mmol/l (more liberal, but realistic for many)

Once you have a type 2 diagnostics the overall goals you should aim for is to get your blood sugar levels as close to โ€œnormalโ€ โ€œoptimalโ€ levels as you possibly can.

BUT, as suggested above, often goals are set with higher targets initially. For instance, if you have a high reading of 250 or 300 (13 or 17), your physician or health practitioner may recommend 200 (11.1) be an initial goal, then 180 (10), before gradually working toward 140 (7.8) and lower.

The reason this is often recommended is you can experience symptoms of hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) if you bring your levels down very quickly. So working toward tighter and tighter control does take some time.

You should work with your healthcare team on this. But overall the most optimal targets to work toward are a fasting glucose under 100 mg/dl or 6 mmol/l. And an after-meal reading below 140 or 7.8.

Types of Berries and table of content ๐Ÿซ๐Ÿซ

Table Of Content

Berries are any of the small, soft, and fleshy fruits that may have several seeds, but no stone or pit. With more than 400 different edible varieties out there, berries occur in a range of bright colors. Because of their juicy texture as well as sweet or sour taste, they are extensively used in jams, desserts, and spreads.

Although raspberries, strawberries, and blackberries have the word โ€˜berryโ€™ in their names, they are not โ€˜trueโ€™ berries at all. They would rightly be called aggregate fruits, because they consist of numerous individual small fruits fused together. On the other hand, pomegranates, avocados, kiwis, tomatoes, and even bananas, are actually botanically considered berries with their multiple tiny seeds. Juniper berries are another exception, as they are actually seed cones, and not true berries, of different juniper trees.

The following list includes all the best-known berry types, as well as fruits that are commonly referred to as โ€˜berriesโ€™.

Types of โ€˜Berriesโ€™ Commonly Available in Grocery Stores

1. Blueberry


These are dark sky-colored berries known for their sweet, tangy taste and juicy texture. Since they contain high amounts of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, the blueberries promote digestion and weight loss and possess anti-aging properties. They are typically used in muffins, pancakes, and coconut popsicles.

Calories (Per 100 grams): 57

2. Raspberry


Their vibrant red color, delightful sweet taste, and delicate texture make them a peopleโ€™s favorite. Raspberries are packed with vitamin C, helping in reducing wrinkles and boosting immunity. While they are widely used in candies, baked foods, and chocolate treats like brownies, they are equally tasty when eaten fresh.

Calories (Per 100 grams): 53

3. Strawberry


These red berry-like fruits, having a seedy, juicy texture and deliciously sweet taste, are one of the most common summer fruits available in the market. Because of the high levels of vitamin C, they help improve your eye health and boost immunity. Of course, you can eat them fresh as a dessert; they are also put into jams and smoothies.

Calories (Per 100 grams): 33

4. Cranberry


These dark-red berries, native to Canada and the US, are known for their intense tart taste. They are rich in vitamin C, fiber, and antioxidants, and they help fight urinary tract infections as well as promote healthy gums. Cranberries are commonly served on Thanksgiving day and used in sauces, juices, supplements, and pancakes.

Calories (Per 100 grams): 46

5. Blackberry


These are one of the most famous summer fruits out there, being loved for their sour-sweet taste and numerous health benefits. The dark-purple berry-like fruits help reduce inflammation and improve brain function. They are generally included as an ingredient in cobblers, jams, pies, and cheesecake galette.

Calories (Per 100 grams): 43

6. Boysenberry


These are a hybrid variety produced from loganberries, dewberries, raspberries, and blackberries. They are dark reddish-purple fruits with a soft, juicy texture and sweet, floral taste. Boysenberries are often eaten raw or whipped up for use in jams, cobblers, and pies.

Calories (Per 100 grams): 43

7. Blackcurrant


These are small, glossy berries that are grown in northern Asia and northern Europe. Because of their sweet, earthy taste, they are eaten raw and also used for making syrups, juices, preserves, jams, and alcoholic beverages. They are good for your eye health and promote immunity.

Calories (Per 100 grams): 63

8. Redcurrant


They are bright red edible berries grown in North America, Asia, and Europe. These fruits have the same level of sweetness as their blackcurrant relatives, but with a higher level of tartness. Redcurrants are served raw and can be used in jams, fruit soups, puddings, and salads.

Calories (Per 100 grams): 56

9. Goji Berry

Goji Berry

Also called wolfberry, these are exotic red berries that are commonly publicized as a superfood, which gives you a quick boost of energy. These are typically sold dried and have an intensely sweet taste combined with a slight bitterness. The goji berries are commonly used in teas, baked foods, and dark chocolate bars.

Calories (Per 100 grams): 349

10. Acai berry

Acai Berry

They are small berries that are dark purple and have a sour-sweet flavor with a chocolate aftertaste. The acai berries are an antioxidant powerhouse, promoting weight loss and heart health. These fruits are commonly included in breakfast bowls and make a great addition to smoothies.

Calories (Per 100 grams): 70

11. Mulberry


These berries look like a longer variety of blackberry or raspberry and come in different colors, including red, purple, black, and white. They are relatively sweet and have a hint of tartness, which makes them suitable for use in jams, pies, summer puddings, and yogurt

Global village at Dubai ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ช

Sunset Right now 5.52pm๐ŸŒ…๐ŸŒ…

Everything You Need To Know About Malurus leucopterus White-winged Fairywren

  • 1 | 7The adult male in its striking, breeding plumage is either dark blue or glossy black with white shoulder patches, and it has a mid to dark blue tail. The glossy black plumage is found on the subspecies edouardi, found only on Dirk Hartog and Barrow Islands off Western Australia, while the dark blue is found on the mainland subspecies, leuconotus. The adult female has a drab grey-brown crown, back and wings, grey tail faintly washed blue. She is whitish below and her flanks and lower underparts are washed dull buff. Immature birds are like the female. The male does not obtain full plumage until its fourth year. This species is also called the Black-and-White, Blue-and-White or White-backed Fairy-wren; or the Pied, White-backed or White-winged Wren.

The white-winged fairywren (Malurus leucopterus) is a small passerine bird native to Australia. Australiaโ€™s fairy-wrens have the reputation of being brightly coloured, and the White-winged Fairy-wren is one of the most striking.

  • 2 | 7The male of the similar splendid fairy-wren,Malurus splendens, has rich violet blue on its crown, back, shoulders, throat and most of its under surface, but its ear tufts are sky blue. The male of the Red-backed fairywren, Malurus malanocephalus, is glossy black, but with fiery orange shoulders, back and rump. The male White- shouldered Fairy-wren, Malurus alboscapulatus, is entirely glossy black, except for white shoulders.
  • 3 | 7The white-winged fairywren is found from Dirk Hartog Island and coast of Western Australia east across mainland (not north) to central and southern Queensland, central New South Wales and NW Victoria. It is replaced by the Red-backed Fairy-wren north of 20 degrees South.


The white-winged fairywren is found in low shrubland throughout arid and semi-arid areas, especially in samphire on saltpans and chenopod (for example saltbush) shrublands. It is replaced by the Splendid Fairy-wren where vegetation is taller. The White-winged Fairy-wren stays in the one area, but may be locally nomadic outside the breeding season.

  • 5 | 7The white-winged fairywren eats insects, especially beetles(Coleoptera) and also spiders (Araneae). It also eats some seeds of the plant genera Rhagodia, Chenopodium (saltbush for example), Euphorbia (Spurges) and Portulaca. Its small size allows this species to glean from leaves and stems of dense shrubs. It also hop-searches on the ground, and makes brief aerial sorties to catch insects.
  • 6 | 7The white-winged fairywren is socially monogomous but sexually promiscuous. It is a cooperative breeder and appears to live in groups. Its nest is built by the female and is a domed structure measuring 10 x 6cm, with a side entrance. The nest is made from fine grasses, lined with plant down and feathers. It is usually less than 1m above ground, in the middle of dense thorny bush. The female incubates the eggs and all members of the group feed the chicks for about four weeks. The young remain in the family group.
  • 7 | 7Populations of White-winged fairywrens have decreased due to various types of habitat destruction – clearing of chenopod shrublans and of lignum thickets in periodically flooded lake beds, in western New South Wales; clearing of native vegetation in the Murray-Mallee region; heavy grazing of bluebrush and saltbush areas; and irrigation in in the Murray valley. Populations are also adversely affected, at least in the short term, by burning of their habitat. Increased salinisation in some areas appears to be of benefit.

Budidha gummadi vadiyalu (Ash guard) ๐Ÿ˜‹๐Ÿ˜‹

CBSE class 1-1 0 โœ๏ธโœ๏ธโœ๏ธ๐Ÿ“–๐Ÿ“–

Physical And Chemical Changes

Changes occur around us all the time. Milk turns sour, seed germinate, the weather changes and fruit ripen.
Changes can be of different types: desirable and undesirable changes, slow and fast changes, temporary and permanent changes, reversible and Irreversible changes and physical and chemical changes.
All these changes involve one or more substances. Each substance has a unique composition.

Physical changes: When a substance undergoes a physical change, it does not give rise to a different kind of substance or there is no new substance is formed. A physical change is a reversible change.

Chemical changes: A Chemical change occurs when two or more chemical substances react to form new product that have an entirely different set of properties. A chemical change is mostly Irreversible. For example; cooking food, ripening of fruit, lighting a matchstick, aging of leaves and digestion of food etc.

Chemical reaction:

A chemical change occurs when chemicals react with each other. Thus, a chemical change is also called a chemical reaction.

Some of the properties of a chemical change or chemical reaction are:

  • Change in energy
  • Change in color
  • Evolution of gas
  • Formation of precipitate

Change in energy: Almost all chemical reactions involved energy change. Some chemical reactions produce heat while some take away heat.
A change or reaction in which heat is released is called an exothermic reaction

For example; In a reaction between carbon and oxygen, carbon dioxide is formed with the generation of heat.
Carbon + Oxygen โ€ฆโ€ฆ. Carbon dioxide + Heat

A change or reaction in which heat is absorbed from the surrounding is called an endothermic reaction.
For example in a reaction between carbon and sulphur, carbon disulphide is formed with the absorption of heat.
Carbon + Sulphur + Heat โ€ฆโ€ฆ.. Carbon disulphide

Change in colour: The colour of the product may differ from that of the reactants.
For example; copper sulphate is blue in colour, but after reacting with iron, the product formed ( iron sulphate) is of green colour.

Evolution of gas: Some chemical changes also produce gases. Generally the gases produced can be carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia etc. The presence of carbon dioxide can be confirmed as it turns lime water milky.
Reaction between vinegar and baking soda:
Take vinegar (acetic acid) in a glass beaker and add a pinch of baking soda (sodium hydrogen carbonate) to it. We will observe gas bubbles coming out of the beaker. This is due to the release of carbon dioxide. This can be confirmed by making the gas produced pass through freshly prepared lime water. The lime water turns milky when carbon dioxide is passed through it due to the formation of calcium carbonate

Carbon dioxide (CO2) + Lime water [Ca(OH)2 ] -> Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) + Water (H2 O)
Formation of precipitate: In some chemical changes, the product formed separates from the solution and form a different mass of layer. This insoluble solid is called a precipitate.

For example; in a reaction between copper sulphate and hydrogen sulphide, copper sulphide and sulfuric acid are formed. The copper sulphide formed is given out as a precipitate.

Chemical formula: 
The symbolic representation of the composition of a chemical compound is known as its chemical formula. For example; the chemical formula of sodium chloride is NaCl.

The combining capacity of the atom of an element with the atom of other elements is known as its valency.
Valencies of Some common elements are given below

Chemical equations:
A Chemical change resulting in the formation of one or more new substances is called a chemical reaction. The representation of a chemical reaction using symbols and formulae of the elements or compounds involved in the reaction is known as chemical equation.
The chemical substances that participate in a chemical reaction are known as reactants.

The new substances formed due to a chemical reaction are known as products.
For example; Consider the reaction of magnesium with oxygen. Magnesium reacts with oxygen to form magnesium oxide.
Magnesium+oxygenโ†’Magnesium oxide

Types of chemical reactions:

Chemical reactions are classified in the following types:

  • Combination reaction
  • Decomposition reaction
  • Single displacement reaction
  • Double displacement reaction

Synthesis or Combination reaction:
In this type of reaction, two or more substances combine to form one new substance. For example; hydrogen and oxygen react to form water.

Decomposition reaction:
In this type of chemical reaction, a compound breaks down into two or more substances. For example; silver chloride when exposed in sunlight breaks into silver and chlorine gas.


Single displacement reaction:
In this, atoms of one element displays the atoms of another element from a compound.
For example; when iron is dipped in copper sulphate solution then iron displaced copper from copper sulphate solution and copper and iron sulphate solution is formed.


Double displacement reaction:
In this, Atom of two compounds switch places to form two new compounds.
For example; when hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide react then two new compounds sodium chloride and water are formed.


Some pure substances which are solid at room temperature from crystals. The process of formation of crystals is known as crystallization.
The process of crystallization is an example of a physical change. By obtaining crystals, we are able to purify certain substances. Pure sugar, urea, copper sulphate,  alum and table salt form crystals.
The salt obtained by evaporation consists of many impurities such as sand, magnesium chloride etc. The impure salt can be purified by the crystallization process.

  • For crystallization a large amount of salt is dissolved in water and allowed to boil to obtain a saturated solution.
  • Filter the saturated solution to remove impurities.

Event in front of my home ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜ mesmerising crackers ๐Ÿคฉ last night

Tamarind fruit tree

A tamarind is a fruity that when ripen has a great sweet taste โ€ฆThese are pulp covered beans that covered beans that can be used in many ways โ€ฆItโ€s benefits are antioxidants and anti -inflammatory fruit โ€ฆ

Amateur Photographer Snaps Extremely Rare Black Leopard On First Safari Trip๐Ÿ†๐Ÿ†

While for some it takes years or even a lifetime to capture on camera a rare, elusive wild cat โ€“ for this engineering student in India it took less than an hour to spot an extremely rare black leopard.

The unforgettable sight unfolded in front of Pangis’ eyes on his second day of the trip. He spotted the majestic creature drinking water from a pond and the sight left him completely baffled. It took at least 10 minutes for the lucky student to came back into senses and to capture the once-in-a-lifetime-moment on camera.

Candid pic

Soap nuts Tree (kunkudukayalu) in front of my home , candid pic today ๐Ÿ˜๐ŸŒณ

Being women๐Ÿง•๐Ÿ‘ฉโ€๐Ÿ’ผ๐Ÿ‘ฉโ€๐Ÿฆฐ๐Ÿ‘ฐโ€โ™€๏ธ

Custard Apple /Sugar Apple ๐Ÿ˜‹๐Ÿ˜‹

Custard Apple is so sweet , This sugar Apples are delicious

Beautiful Thick Red sunset ๐ŸŒ… today 5.45pm๐ŸŒž

Medimilla magrifica seeds

Happy 73th Republic Day ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ